2009-09-08

The Technologies & Future of Web 2.0

Abstract
The web we are using today enriched with technologies of Web 2.0 and even
some technologies of Web 3.0. Technologies in Web 2.0 can be categorized in
many di erent ways. Web 3.0 will be next version of web.
Acknowledgements
I'm very grateful to Dr. A.R. Weerasinghe who helped me a lot to write this
literature survey. I'd also like to thank Dr. Lalith Premaratne for his guidance
on selecting a suitable topic. Many thanks, too, to all the lecturers of UCSC
who helped me a lot by sharing the knowledge of computer science with me.
Finally, thanks to everyone who supported me to write this survey.
Contents
1 Introduction 5
1.1 What is Web 2.0? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.1 De nitions of Web 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 Technologies of Web 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3 Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 Categorization 7
2.1 Social Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 Multimedia Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.1 Video Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.2 Audio Podcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.3 Photo Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3 Blogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.4 Tagging and social bookmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.5 Wikis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.6 Tracking and Filtering content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.7 Aggregation Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.8 Mash-ups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.9 Replicate Oce-Style Software in the browser . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.10 3D Virtual Worlds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3 Pros and Cons 14
3.1 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.2 Storage space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3 Developing Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4 Security / Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.5 Disadvantages and Advantages which can occur to social life of
people due to Web 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4 Future Web 16
4.1 Future of Web 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.2 Web 3.0? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.2.1 Opinions about Web 3.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5 Conclusion 18
5.1 Di erences between Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 . . . . . . . . 18
5.2 SEOmoz's Web 2.0 Awards [16] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3 Future Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2
List of Figures
2.1 Example Tag Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1 Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3
List of Tables
5.1 Road to Web 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2 Road to Web 3.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 What is Web 2.0?
There is no exact de nition for Web 2.0. It's a concept which is about making
the world more connective and easy for users to browse the internet. There are
number of technologies in Web 2.0. Web 2.0 is entirely depending on human
interactions which are done through web. Web 2.0 give new enhanced way to
do human interactions through web, by easing the use of web and enhancing
the power and
exibility of web functionalities.
Web 2.0 gives a new meaning to the World Wide Web by replicating existing
technologies with new. It's about whole new things. Because of Web 2.0, users
of the web, gain many advantages. In another words, because ofWeb 2.0, people
who frequently use web were bene ted from the `real'meaning of World Wide
Web. According to Sir Tim Berners Lee, The web is more a social creation
than a technical one. The ultimate goal of the Web is to support and improve
our web-like existence in the world. Web 2.0 gives a di erent perception for
`information sharing through web'by introducing new concepts.
1.1.1 De nitions of Web 2.0
There are many di erent de nitions for Web 2.0 which are done by computer
specialists all over the world. Here are some.
\Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0
applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that
platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better
the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, in-
cluding individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form
that allows remixing by others, creating network e ects through an \architecture
of participation,"and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich
user experiences." - Tim O'Reilly
\Openness of data and services, rich user experience and low cost of delivery"
- Je Clavier
\Web 2.0 is an attitude not a technology. It's about enabling and encouraging
participation through open applications and services. By open I mean techni-
cally open with appropriate APIs but also, more importantly, socially open, with
rights granted to use the content in new and exciting contexts." - Ian Davis
1.2 Technologies of Web 2.0
Some of the Web 2.0 technologies are upgraded versions of existing tech-
nologies while some of the technologies are new only to `Web 2.0'. Those new
technologies and the new concepts make the revolution of web by creating a
second version of web or `Web 2.0'. Some of the Web 2.0 technologies are listed
below.
1. Social Networking
2. Professional Networking
3. Source ideas or work from the crowd
4. Video Sharing
5. Audio Podcasting
6. Photo Sharing
7. Blogs
8. Tagging and Social bookmarking
9. Wikis
10. Tracking and Filtering content
11. Aggregation Services
12. Mash-ups
13. Replicate Office-Style Software in the browser
14. 3D Virtual Worlds
15. Collaborating
1.3 Outline
The rest of this report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 contains Catego-
rization of Web 2.0 technologies with example web sites. Chapter 3 is about
development technologies use to develop Web 2.0 sites. Chapter 4 focuses about
advantages and disadvantages of Web 2.0, for both developers and users. Chap-
ter 5 contains predictions about future web. Chapter 6 contains a summary of
this report.
Chapter 2
Categorization
2.1 Social Networking
Social and professional networking web sites are connecting people in similar
area, similar profession, similar minds/ideas, similar country/school/college and
even unknown peoples in web. Social and professional networking sites make
places to meet people and share information and data.
Professional networking sites allow people to meet people in similar job/research
area/work. People share many ideas, asks questions relevant to their job/research
area/work, give answers for the questions, discuss about various topics regard-
ing their job/research area/work, give advices and share their job/research
area/work knowledge through professional networking sites. There are sepa-
rate social networking sites for some professions.
Social networking is very popular among young people. It helps them to nd
even suitable life partners!
Best known examples for social networking sites
1. MySpace
2. Facebook
3. Hi5
4. Bebo
5. FriendSter
6. Orkut
Best known examples for professional networking sites
1. LinkedIn
2. Ecademy
3. zoominfo
4. sermo
2.2 Multimedia Sharing
Today, web media is a very big hot topic around the world. Almost every
web users are using web media.
2.2.1 Video Sharing
Video sharing is becoming a very popular web technology. Users can upload
their videos to the web and view/download/rate videos in the web. Users can
also comment on particular videos in the web.
The purpose of uploading a video can be varying. Some people are uploading
their personal videos to communicate with number of people who are listening
to them. That way, people are using video sharing sites to communication.
Some category of people is using video sharing sites to educational matters such
as uploading videos of lectures.
Best known examples for video sharing sites
1. YouTube
2. Metacafe
2.2.2 Audio Podcasting
Podcasts are audio recordings, usually in MP3 format, of lectures, Interviews,
Presentations and talks which can be played in many devices including PCs.
Podcasting is same as video sharing, except an audio le is capture or recorded
from a device and then upload it to a host server. The world will be aware of
audio podcasts existence through the use of RSS. Nowadays audio podcasting
is very popular in education eld.
Best known examples for audio blogging and podcasting sites
1. Odeo
2. IMPALA
2.2.3 Photo Sharing
Photo sharing through web sites are becoming very popular now more than
ever in the web history. Photo sharing sites allow users to create photo albums
and share those albums with friends and family members and also with the
world. In photo sharing sites, every user gets a separate space to upload their
photos in to the web. From that, users can show their photos to others in few
minutes.
Best known examples for photo sharing sites
1. Flickr
2. Photobucket
2.3 Blogs
The term blog is originated from web-log. Blogs allows users to put their own
ideas/opinions on the web, share information and keep online diaries. Most blog
sites allow visitors to add comments below blog posts. Each blog post is tagged
with keyword and ` led'under a `topic'. It makes users who are interested about
those blog posts to nd it easily. Blogging software system is there to give the
other list of posts which were uploaded by the same author in relevant eld.
With develop of the technology; blogging is also developed by heaps. Nowa-
days blog sites are allowing users to upload audio les (audio blogging), video
les (v-logs), photos (photo-blogs) and directly upload materials from their mo-
bile phones to the web (mob-blogging).
Blogs are used widely in the world for educational purposes, share opinion,
make money by putting advertisements on their blog sites and do conversations
between authors and other participants. Because of the popularity of blog sites,
there are search services for blogs. Some of the well known blog search services
are shown below.
1. Technorati
2. Google blog search
Best known examples for blog sites
1. O'Reilly Radar
2. Blogger
3. The official Google blog
4. Blog.com
5. The facebook blog
6. Seth's blog
2.4 Tagging and social bookmarking
Tag is a key word used to describe a digital object in the web. Social book-
marking allows users to keep their favorite web sites in a remote service other
than save it as a bookmark in client web browser. Tagging and social bookmark-
ing coming in handy when it use together. Users can keep social bookmarking
on a remote service and can tag each bookmarks by keywords. In that way
users can categorize each bookmark under to several categories. And also users
can share these bookmarks with other users. That's why it's called as social
bookmarking.
Tagging is a far beyond concept than tagging web site bookmarks. People can
tag photos, videos, audios and many digital contents according to their likeness.
For example, BBC is allowing the public to tag their online news.
The tagging concept is expanded to tag clouds. Tag cloud is a group of tags
which collates data about the frequency of a tag which is used for a particular
content. According to each frequency, the tag keyword is displayed in di erent
sizes. I.e. Tags with higher frequency are displayed in larger size while tags with
lower frequency are displayed in smaller size. In tag clouds it's easy to get a
clear idea about what the content is actually about, by looking at the graphical
representation of the tag cloud. Here is an example of a tag cloud which can be
used for this document.
Figure 2.1: Example Tag Cloud
Best known examples for web sites which provide tagging services
1. Digg
2. Flickr
Best known examples for social bookmarking sites
1. Delicious
2. SiteBar
3. StumbleUpon
4. BlinkList
5. CiteULike
6. Connotea
2.5 Wikis
Wikis are similar to blogs except that Wikis are used for sharing knowledge
and they have a history and rollback feature, where documents can be rolled
back through the history feature so as to acquire and restore previous versions
of documents.
Users can edit the contents of the Wikis. It's a real problem to identify who are
the users doing malicious editing and who are the users doing required editing.
This problem can be solved by adding an automatic self moderation process,
restrict the write access only to known (registered) users and by disabling the
editing function for the IP which has done a malicious editing before.
In another words, Wiki is simple server software which support users to create
pages containing hyperlinks.
Best known examples for Wikis
1. Wikipedia
2. ChemWiki
3. wikiHow
2.6 Tracking and Filtering content
There are web sites to track and lter content of the other web sites. More
the users are access a particular web site, it will appear top of the tracking and
ltering content web site. Those sites are also allows users to search web sites
for di erent criteria.
Content ltering software enables users to lter for web sites which contain
pornography or drug use. Some tracking web sites also provide a functionality
to send the updates to the users' mobile phones by monitoring changes in the
web sites. It guarantees that user will not miss any important issue that has
occurred in a web site.
Best known example web sites for tracking and ltering content
1. BlogPulse
2. ZapTXT
2.7 Aggregation Services
Aggregation services are gathering information from various sources in the
web and publish it in a one place. For example you can use your mail account,
view news, get facebook messages and alerts, and get the weather details of a
town and much more, in a one web site. It's amazingly easy to have such a lot
of services in a one web site.
Best known examples for Aggregation Services
1. BlogBridge
2. SuprGlu
3. netvibes
2.8 Mash-ups
Mash-ups use information from di erent web sites and make new services us-
ing those existing information.
Best known examples for Mash-ups
1. HousingMaps
2. Rrove
2.9 Replicate Office-Style Software in the browser
Replicate office-style software in the web is also an interesting and useful
technology. It allows users to do things using online software. For example
• Create presentations, spreadsheets and documents.
• Email facilities.
• Communication.
• Online calendars.
• Reminders.
• Sharing facilities.
Best known examples for office style software in web browser
1. Google Docs
2. Backpack
2.10 3D Virtual Worlds
Actually 3D virtual worlds are beyond Web 2.0. But some computer special-
ists are categorize, 3D virtual worlds as a Web 2.0 technology.
Virtual worlds provide, novel and intuitive ways to do things using web. Some
are
• Surf online audio/video/TV collections.
• Browse online documents, news and libraries.
• Virtual tourism (visit 3D virtual places).
• Chat with other people who are in the virtual world (The avatars of real
people).
• Ride virtual vehicles,
y, swim or teleport in virtual world (Some things
we can't do in real life).
• Play multiplayer games.
• Buy and sell items in real life and as well as in virtual world
• Advertising and marketing.
• Develop soft skills and social skills through virtual worlds.
• Attend and participate to live events such as lectures, conferences, festi-
vals, concerts, meetings and musical shows.
• Build communities for educational purposes, politics and hobbies etc.
• Build dream houses.
• Create virtual families.
There are lots of new features enabled in virtual worlds which can't be imple-
menting in normal web sites. As an example, when chatting in virtual worlds,
the sound is heard relative to the location of other person. If the person avatar
is closer to you, you will be hear his/her sound loudly. If the person avatar is
getting far from your avatar, the sound will become low and nally you will not
hear that persons' sound at all.
Best known examples for 3D Virtual Worlds
1. ExitReality
2. Second Life
3. hangout
4. There
Chapter 3
Pros and Cons
3.1 Performance
Web 2.0 sites take somewhat longer time to load than normal (Web 1.0) web
sites. However this is not always true. Loading time is actually depending on
the Network congestion, speed of the network and the size of the Web page.
But if we access a Web 2.0 site and Web 1.0 site from a same computer, we
will notice that Web 2.0 site takes some time to load. That's because, the
technologies used in Web 2.0 site.
3.2 Storage space
All most every Web 2.0 technologies are depending on customization. Most
of the Web 2.0 technologies use separate space for each user. From users' point
of view, it's a big advantage to have a space in web, for them. But the company
or individual who maintain the Web 2.0 site, have to increase their host space
in order to keep each users information and data.
3.3 Developing Cost
Developing cost is higher for Web 2.0 sites because technologies used for
developing those sites are fairly new. Only limited number of people exactly
knows how to develop Web 2.0 technologies.
3.4 Security / Privacy
Some computer geniuses are saying security in Web 2.0 sites is very high while
others saying it are not. Anyhow there is still a con
ict about the security and
privacy in Web 2.0 sites.
3.5 Disadvantages and Advantages which can oc-
cur to social life of people due to Web 2.0
There are several services which are improved in Web 2.0 while there are
several issues which have occurred due to those improvements.
Existing services with new look and feel
• Life planning (Blogs to express own ideas).
• Technical supports.
• Online time managers to manage time.
• Financial management.
• Jobs nding.
• Business guide (project solutions).
• Linking people with same interests.
• Entertainment.
Issues
• Addiction.
• Gambling.
• Pornography.
• Trust/Identity/Privacy issues.
• Health issues in eyes due to powerful graphics (such as in 3D virtual
spaces).
• The quality of information can be reducing due to the misuse of editable
web.
Chapter 4
Future Web
4.1 Future of Web 2.0
Many Software engineers, Web developers, Tech leads, System architects and
Computer scientists around the world are predict about the future of Web 2.0.
They come up with di erent ideas about future web. All most every one of them
is saying the future web will be more interactive with users. Most of them are
predict that the future web will be more user-friendly and there will be more
user involvement in developing the web. Other than just browsing, looking and
downloading, there will be more added functions for users to interact with web
(Read write web). But technology is growing faster. Some of the predictions
about futureWeb 2.0 are already in theWeb 2.0. Development of web is doing all
around the world. It's not doing by a one single company or a set of companies.
So anyone can't give a clear idea about how future web will looks like. But the
users of web give rough ideas about what will happen to the web in future. Here
are some of the predictions done by computer specialists, about future of web.
• Semantic web will release a new version of XML.
• Web sites will become web services.
• Online TV will be developed with high picture quality, fast streaming and
more personalization.
• 2D web will replace with 3D web.
Future Web will accompany with mobility, personalization, arti cial intelli-
gence and engaging contextual advertisings.
4.2 Web 3.0?
After Web 2.0, Web 3.0 will come into place. There will be considerable
di erences between Web 2.0 and Web 3.0, mainly in the `Search'. Search will
be more speci c to the user who is searching. Search engines will understand
the real need of users as much as it can. It will perform the search with the
`knowledge'of how the user interacts with web. Search engines will try to gain
as much as possible information about the user. It is known as `Search 3.0'.
Examples for Semantic search engines:
1. Hakia
2. powerset
3. SeachMonkey
4. Yahoo!
5. Google
Not only search engines will be semantic. But also Social networking and
other Web 2.0 technologies will be also semantic in Web 3.0.
Examples for Semantic social networks:
1. GroupMe!
2. Twine
Most of the semantic web sites are now available for use in beta versions and
even full versions.
4.2.1 Opinions about Web 3.0
Here are some opinions about web 3.0, from people who are in highest level of
computer world.
\The Semantic Web (or Web 3.0) promises to `organize the world's informa-
tion'in a dramatically more logical way than Google can ever achieve with their
current engine design." - Marc Fawzi, Evolving Trends
\Web 2.0 is a marketing term, and I think you've just invented Web 3.0" -
Eric Schmidt, CEO of Google
\If Web 2.0 was so hot, how about Web 3.0? This has been a recurrent theme
of would-be meme-engineers who want to position their startup as the next big
thing." - Tim O'Reilly, O'Reilly Radar
Chapter 5
Conclusion
5.1 Di differences between Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and
Web 3.0
Web 1.0 Web 2.0
the mostly read only web the wildly read-write web
45 million global users (1996) 1 billion+ global users (2006)
focused on companies focused on communities
home pages blogs
owning content sharing content
Britannica Online Wikipedia
HTML, portals XML, RSS
web forms web applications
directories (taxonomy) tagging ("folksonomy")
Netscape Google
pages views cost per click
advertising word of mouth
Table 5.1: Road to Web 2.0
Web 2.0 Web 3.0
the wildly read-write web the portable personal web
focused on communities focused on the individual blogs
lifestream
sharing content consolidating dynamic content
XML, RSS the semantic web
web applications widgets, drag
drop mashups
tagging ("folksonomy") user behavior (me-onomy)
Google iGoogle, NetVibes
cost per click user engagement
word of mouth advertainment
Table 5.2: Road to Web 3.0
18
5.2 SEOmoz's Web 2.0 Awards [16]
• Bookmarking
{ 1st place - Delicious
{ 2nd place - StumbleUpon
{ 3rd place - FURL
• Photo sharing
{ 1st place -
ickr
{ 2nd place - picnic
{ 3rd place - Picasa
• Professional Networking
{ 1st place - Linkedin
{ 2nd place - biznik
{ 3rd place - PROFESSIONALONTHEWEB
• Video sharing
{ 1st place - YouTube
{ 2nd place - BBC iPlayer
{ 3rd place - Metacafe
• Blog guides
{ 1st place - Google blog search
{ 2nd place - Bloglines
{ 3rd place - Technorati
5.3 Future Directions
There will be more people in the web space in near future. Numbers of
people who are watching television, news papers and listening to the radio will
be reduce dramatically. The graph shown below shows average hours per week,
a person use the technology.
From the graph shown below, it's clear that the usage of has increased in 2007.
Use of other technology such as Television, Radio, Online radio and Video games
has been decreased. So it can be predicted that the use of web will increase with
leaps in next few years.

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